Member No.: 183
Joined: 13-November 10
OOC: Will take Emma at least temporarily to help Stephanie get Alloy in play. Bio is from Comicvine--Karen
Real Name: Emma Grace Frost
Former alias: The White Queen
Weight: 144 lbs. (65 kg), 436 lbs. in diamond form
Hair: Brown, dyed Platinum Blond
Unusual Features: Emma can change into "diamond form" turning her skin into organic seemingly indestructible diamond.
Known Relatives: Winston Frost (father, deceased), Hazel Frost (mother, deceased), Cordelia Frost (sister), Adrienne Frost (sister, deceased), Christian Frost (brother), Steven Frost (brother-in-law, deceased), Celeste Cuckoo ("cloned daughter"), Phoebe Cuckoo ("cloned daughter"), Irma Cuckoo ("cloned daughter"), Esme Cuckoo ("cloned daughter", deceased), Sophie Cuckoo ("cloned daughter", deceased), Thousand-In-One ("cloned daughters," deceased)
Citizenship: United States
Place of Birth: Boston, Massachusetts
Occupation: Co-Headmistress of Xavier Institute, Chairperson of the Board and Chief Executive of Frost International, Chairman of the Board of Trustees & headmistress of Massachusetts Academy, Multi-Millionaire, Heiress
Powers and Abilities
Telepathy: Emma is a powerful and experienced telepath. Her telepathic powers allow her to perform several feats such as mind-to-mind communication, mind reading, mind control, paralysis, possession, hypnosis, pain stimulation, and the creation of powerful blasts (psi-bolts) capable of killing person. Also, during her time with the Hellfire Club, Emma used to rearrange her students' brain engrams to make them undetectable by other telepaths - mainly Professor X, to prevent him from enrolling her students in his own Institute. Since her first appearances, Emma is said to have power around Professor X. Recently Emma started being depicted as an "Omega Class Telepath", the same classification as Charles Xavier. Emma's telepathy manifested in her teens and she has devoted her life to mastering her skills. She grew from just reading minds and scanning memories to projecting illusions and inducing sleep in just a few years (from upperclassmen years in high school to her freshman year in college). Following the death of Jean Grey and the de-powering of Professor X (though he has since regained his abilities) Emma has been the X-Men's resident telepath and this position has forced Emma to push her telepathy to its limits, increasing her skill. It is implied by Rogue in X-Men Annual # 1 that Emma is the world's most powerful telepath; however, this may no longer be the case since the re-empowerment of Professor X.
Diamond Form: Emma gained a secondary mutation during the destruction of Genosha in New X-Men #115, which manifested as complete transmutation of her organic tissues into organic diamond. It was later revealed in a flashback that Cassandra Nova catalyzed Emma Frost's secondary mutation in order to allow her to survive the harsh environment of Genosha (however, it is still questionable if this is really true, as Emma's mind was being manipulated by Cassadra during the time the flashback occurred and Emma felt a "survivor's guilt" about what happened in Genosha. It may be the way Emma's mind represents her blaming herself for that incident) . This ability allows Emma to turn into an unliving, yet sentient and mobile diamond form, granting her substantial resistance to damage, invulnerability to cold and heat, enhanced strength (the extent of which has not yet been clearly defined) and immortality. While invulnerable to almost all physical damage in diamond form, like a real diamond, Emma has a flaw. Emma's diamond form can be shattered if she is struck in that right area with the right weapon (in her first and only shattering, she was shot with a diamond bullet).
Initially, her diamond form was described as being only her skin, though later depictions confirmed that Emma's entire body turns to solid but flexible, diamond. While in her diamond form Emma is unable to use her telepathy, and is resistant (if not totally immune) to all forms of telepathy. The use of telepathy in diamond form and her supposed immunity has been problematically depicted, with her using her telepathy in some instances and also being affected by major telepathic abilities (such as Jean Grey's). Recent depictions have reiterated her inability to use her telepathy or her susceptibility to telepathy while in diamond form. Jean Grey, however, was able to sense Emma's consciousness and able to telekinetically fuse her shattered remains back together.
Latent Telekinesis: Emma was also stated to be a potential telekinetic. During the Onslaught Saga, Emma unintentionally levitated some utensils while facing a nightmare. Later, Synch used Emma's powers to recover from a coma and in the process levitated objects telekinetically. Synch could "synch" with only one mutant per time, so it is clearly Emma's power. After further clarifications, it was stated that this phenomenon is one of Frost's powers that potentially lies within her mutation.
Abilities: She is extremely intelligent and cunning, allowing her to traverse the ranks in business, the Hellfire Club, and the X-Men, as well as acquire a great deal of wealth. Emma also has a great deal of knowledge in electronics, as she constructed and/or infiltrated various technological devices that enhance telepathic powers, such as Cerebro. Among Emma's inventions are a body-swapping gun she once used to change bodies with Storm, the device Mastermind used to project his illusions in the mind of the Phoenix Force itself and the Multivac, a mutant locating computer, much like Cerebro (although its range was not defined, it could be operated by a non-telepath, while Cerebro demanded a powerful telepath, such as Professor X).
Emma also spent a long time mentoring young mutants, granting her a great deal of knowledge in mutant's powers and how they work as well. When she possessed Iceman's body she used his powers in ways he never did before, such as melting inside a lake and solidifying on the other side and restoring damages done by bullets. She also realized Jubilee's true potential when she first saw her using her powers, and linked Synch's and Jubilee's mind to allow her to briefly achieve her full power and destroy many Phalanx unities with a single shot. More recently, Emma discovered that Cyclops' inability to control his optic blasts was caused by a mental block done by Scott himself (and not physical brain damage, as it was believed before) and did a psychic surgery that allowed him to control his powers for a time.
Bio: Emma Grace Frost grow up in the rich neighborhood of Snow Valley, Massachusetts, where she attended the Snow Valley School for girls. The frost family consisted of Winston (Father), Hazel (Mother), Christian (Eldest Child), Adrienne (Eldest Sister), Emma (Middle Sister) and Cordelia (Youngest Sister). Whilst attending Snow Valley, she was stressed by her father, to exceed in all her grades so she could finally win approval from him. But, Emma turned out to be only a 'B' student, failing her father once again, causing him to mentally abuse Emma. She took comfort in her older brother, Christian, sharing their dislike for their father.
During her teen years, her powers began to manifest, first thought to be headaches and then into basic telepathy. This had a massive affect on her and caused her to pass out. She also began having weird dreams and hearing people's voices in her head. She kept her abilities a secret, fearing she would be kicked out of her house if she would tell her father.
Using her powers to exceed in her grades, Emma soon became a top 'A' student, finally winning approval from her father. But, promised to keep a close eye on Emma, for future purposes. Her sharp intelligence and smart ways attratced the kind attention of her art teacher, Ian Kendell. Their relationship grew and it eventually ended up in the two kissing. To Emma's horror, her father caught the incident on tape and used it against Ian, getting him fired from the school. Emma was distraught, but was finally opened up to her father's cunning ways.
After graduating High School early, The Frost Family took a vacation to the South of France, where trouble broke out. Emma used her abilities to find out shocking secrets. She found out Adrienne posed for a magazine without her father's permission, and that her father had an affair. She exploited these secrets and told the whole family, getting back at her devious father. At first he was upset, but later realised Emma's tactics were the same as his, offering her a chance to take over the family buisness when old enough.
Emma kept in contact with her brother, Christian, who now lived with his boyfriend. He was mentally abused and discriminated by his father, causing him to go into a deep depression. Emma supported her brother 100% and tried to help him get better.
Christian, became a drug addict after their father had his boyfriend arrested - he subsequently tried to commit suicide (which Emma saw) and then he was institutionalized. Emma's father had told her he was sending Christian to a rehab center, but Emma later found out that he was instead placed into an Mental Institution. This was the point when Emma decided that this was enough and she left the family for good (or so she thought).
It wouldn't be until she went to college that she would understand her powers, with the help of Astrid Bloom.
After Emma left her family, she went to work in Boston to make it on her own. However, this didn't last long as she became involved with a man named Troy Killkelly, whom she discovered was involved with the Boston Mob. So after she told him about her telepathic powers, they scammed a few casinos and begin to get some money to pay the mob off. However, Troy told the mob that Emma was from the Frost Family. They decided to take advantage of that and extort money out of Winston Frost by pretending to kidnap Emma and demanding money from him. At first this didn't work. They even sent a video of an encaged Emma, but Winston sent them a message telling them his daughter was not worth the money. Lucien, the mob's leader, became enraged after being ignored. He killed Troy and then decided to kidnap Emma for real. Lucien sent one of Troy's ears (claiming it was Emma's ear) and a lock of Emma's hair, which Adrienne confirmed to be real. Winston discovered that Adrienne had sold the tape to the media and was forced to pay them off for the release of his daughter, or else it would be horrible for public relations. When Emma realized that Lucien, the mob's leader, was going to kill her she planted doubts in their minds, ending in a blood bath. Emma then took the small fortune her father left for the kidnappers to make it on her own and she enrolled at Empire State University.
After using the money gained from being the Boston Mob's hostage, Emma enrolled at Empire State University where her powers began to develop even more. It was here that she met Astrid Bloom, a very skilled telepath in her own right. Emma and Astrid become friends. Astrid taught Emma about the use of her powers and what she could do with them. It wasn't until Astrid began to make things happen with Emma's friends that they ended up having a psychic battle. This was Emma's first offensive use of her new power. During the psychic fight Astrid believed that she had beaten Emma, but what Astrid didn't count on was Emma Frost's ruthlessness and underhanded ways. During the fight Emma had been on an "express tour of her psyche" and learned everything Astrid knew. This was also where some of Astrid's personality traits bled through into Emma's consciousness (her bitterness towards baseline humans, for example). After this, Emma got a job at the Hellfire Club, where she was approached by Charles Xavier to join his second X-Men team along with Vulcan and Darwin. She refused him and Xavier erased the entire encounter from her then mostly-unshielded mind. From here she used her telepathy to help Sebastian Shaw stage a coup of the Hellfire Club and rose to become the Inner Circle's White Queen.
The White Queen of the Hellfire Club
Emma was first encountered by the X-Men as the White Queen of Inner Circle of the prestigious Hellfire Club. She tried to forcibly recruit Kitty Pryde, and was opposed by the X-Men. Though initially triumphant, the X-Men eventually defeated her. She and the mutant students of hers, the Hellions, would encounter the X-Men many times - almost always as enemies.
Her time with the Hellfire Club ended when it was attacked by a mad time traveler named Trevor Fitzroy. In the ensuing incident which also involved the X-Men, most of the Hellions were killed, and Emma was sent into a coma. Her body was kept at Xavierís until the time when an accident ultimately resulted in her revival, although her mind was transferred to Bobby Drake's body. Initially Emma thought Xavier was holding her hostage, so she fled to Frost International - still in Iceman's body. Accessing one of her computers, Emma finally discovered her Hellions were dead and blamed herself for it. When Xavier and some other X-Men finally caught up with her, Frost confessed to Charles that the only reason she fought him over young mutants was that she believed that she could offer them something Xavier couldn't, and that their deaths proved that she was wrong. Emma then agreed to go back to the X-Mansion and have her mind transferred back to her body.
When the Phalanx kidnapped the X-Men and replaced them with duplicates, the only people left in the X-Mansion were Emma, Banshee, Jubilee and Sabretooth (who was being held prisoner). Together, they fought the Phalanx and discovered it intended to assimilate young mutants to become stronger. The group then went to the rescue of Synch, who was going to be assimilated by the Phalanx. During the fight, Emma realized that her group would soon be defeated and, to prevent that, used her Telepathy to link the minds of Synch and Jubilee, thus using his power to unlock Jubilee's to its full potential. The result was an explosion that destroyed all Phalanx entities within the area. Emma, Banshee, Synch and Jubilee (Sabretooth fled during the fight) then went to Emma's mansion, from where she and Banshee studied the plants of some S.H.I.E.L.D. bases. The two invaded one of these bases to learn the Phalanx whereabouts, as it became immune to Emma's Telepathy after their first fight. They made it in time to prevent the children from being assimilated, but one of them, Clarice Ferguson (known in other realities as Blink), sacrificed herself to destroy that body of the Phalanx. It was then that Emma ceased to be antagonistic to Xavier and the X-Men.
Together with Banshee, Emma presided over the education and training of the rescued mutants (and Jubilee as well), forming the Generation X. Eventually, the Academy would accept non-mutant students as well, although they were not aware of the existence of Generation X. The Academy and Generation X eventually ceased to be as a result of a plot hatched by Emmaís own sister, Adrienne. Adrienne caused a confusion between the students, revealing that some of them were mutants. As the commotion started getting out of control, Adrienne planted some bombs in the Academy. Emma fought her sister while Banshee and Generation X defused the bombs and evacuated the other students. One of the bombs, however, detonated while Synch was trying to defuse it, causing his death. Emma could not bear losing another student after the Hellions, ultimately shooting and killing Adrienne. Emma hid Adrienne's body before anyone could find it, but her students slowly grew suspicious of what happened after Monet witnessed Emma taking down a detective who was searching for Adrienne.
The Generation X members would soon decide to leave the academy, as they felt their headmasters were not trustworthy anymore (Banshee turned to alcohol after Moira MacTaggert's Death and Emma was becoming more and more distant after her sister's death). Each one of them also had their own agenda, which led to Generation X disbanding.
Following the disbanding of Generation X, Emma tries to get away from it all by visiting Monte Carlo. Whilst there she decides to have a little fun, and that fun takes the form of Bruce Gotham a man who is "rich as velvet and nowhere near as sharp." Things begin to go downhill from there as Emma begins to have visions of Adrienne, as there is unfinished business between them from Emma's point of view - namely not killing her earlier. Following a few confrontations with the 'mental ghost' of Adrienne, Emma finally resolves her feelings towards her sister by once again shooting her which causes the vision to disappear. She then proceeds to check out of the hotel because she has an appointment with Charles Xavier which she states she is "finally ready for". From that point on she vows not to rely on her Telepathic abilities this is because in her opinion it has caused her to loose her edge resulting in Synch's death, She vows to be hard "as hard as diamonds."
Joining the X-Men
After this, she went on to teach on the mutant-dominated island nation of Genosha. During the infamous Sentinel Genocide of the islandís inhabitants, Emma managed to survive by virtue of her secondary mutation manifesting, allowing her to take on a near-invulnerable diamond form.
She found herself as one of the instructors at Xavierís, where she developed a close relationship with X-Men founding member Cyclops. This would evolve into a secretive telepathic affair between the two, helped along by an incident where Cyclops temporarily became possessed by Apocalypse. Jeanís discovery of this would distance her own relationship with Cyclops, while Emma would only grow closer to the mutant leader.
Co-Leader of the X-Men
After Jeanís death at the hands of Xorn, Emma began an open romantic relationship with Cyclops, despite the disapproval of others - specifically Beast when the two lovers grip each other on Jean's grave - and she became co-headmaster of the newly rebuilt Xavier Institute.
New X-Men & Astonishing X-Men
Emma thereafter began playing a pivotal role in the lives of the students, and featured in the series New X-Men several times. Emma was the head of a team of students that she called the Hellions, after her former fallen pupils, consisting of Hellion (who Emma was particularly close to, granting him the permission to use his codename (after her late students) which many believed gave him an unneeded ego boost), Dust, Rockslide, Mercury, Wither, Tag and Icarus.
During this time, Emma also joins the new premier X-Men team, consisting of Cyclops, Wolverine, Kitty Pryde and Beast also. After preparing, the X-Men head out to help in a hostage situation. The team manage to take down the henchmen but a problem is presented in the form of their leader, Ord, who threatens to slice through Emma's diamond form, but luckily Lockheed manages to defeat the alien in the end. At this time, Dr. Kavita Rao also reveals that she has developed a mutant "cure", which the X-Men find distressing. But Emma detects the possibility in Beast's brain that he may take the "vaccine", which leads to a clash between him and Wolverine, before Emma breaks them apart mentally. The team head out to the facility, where Kitty takes them in, threatening to leave Emma in a wall if she continues to wriggle.
While Kitty heads down to the lower levels, Emma diamonds up when she, Wolverine, Beast and Cyclops are confronted by the Bentech guards. Cyclops is injured, and, Emma, angry, instructs Wolverine to destroy their artificial mental defense systems, before fiercely attacking them. While Dr. Rao examines the wounded Cyclops, Emma asks her is this the answer, and ponders whether the scientist will try and come up with a cure for homosexuality next. After the team discovers Colossus resurrected, and capture Ord, Emma is seen discussing with a shadowed figure as to whether his return will effect their plans.
When the Danger Room becomes sentient, Emma battles it with the other members of her team. She is the last one standing, but allows Danger to knock her out after Danger reveals she knows Emma's secret. The team chase Danger to Genosha as it attempts to hunt down Professor X, and in the middle of the battle, Emma walks off panel. She returns later, revealed to have left to talk to her shadowy companions: The Hellfire Club, consisting of Cassandra Nova, Perfection, Negasonic Teenage Warhead and Sebastian Shaw.
Dark Reign and Utopia
After Norman Osborn was appointed as the USA's 'top cop,' he immediately convened a group of supposedly like-minded individuals (later dubbed the Cabal) to consolidate his grip on power. Emma joined the group consisting of Norman, Namor, Victor Von Doom, Loki, and the Hood after being plagued with nightmares of the time when she was unable to help Kitty Pryde.
Following a series of pro- versus anti-mutant protests and riots instigated by Simon Trask in San Francisco, Emma was tasked by Norman Osborn to lead a civil peacekeeping group of X-Men, one sanctioned by himself. She was given a black costume and was given command over Wolverine's son Daken, Weapon Omega, Mimic, and the duo of Cloak and Dagger. Emma brought a final element to the team: Namor, with whom she had previously shared a romantic relationship, prior to her time with the X-Men. Though not an official member of her team, a person appearing to be none other than Prof. Xavier served as the team's spokesman and moral backup. Emma easily saw through the ploy (in the process claiming that she was an omega-level telepath) and the "Professor" was revealed to be Mystique, who was working with Osborn only because they had injected explosive nanobots into her bloodstream.
Emma's first sortie with the team occurred when she arrested a group of mutant vandals led by her own formerly favorite student, Hellion. Even at that early stage, tensions already arose, particularly when Daken almost did a lethal attack to one of the other mutant rioters. Emma prevented any fatalities, and the prisoners were brought in.
While more tensions rose between the Avengers and the new X-Men team, enhanced by the aggression of Daken and Hawkeye, Emma put emphasis that she would only continue to be a party to this strategy of Osborn's if all the mutants were treated humanely. She insisted on touring the facility to see how the prisoners were being treated. She is then contacted, weakly, by Professor Xavier, and informs her that he and Hank are being kept prisoner there. He also tells her that the Omega Chair developed by the Dark Beast has horrible side effects, and that Osborn isn't telling her everything. Emma then discovers that the presence of Hank and Prof-X are being kept secret from her using hologram projectors. Remaining in diamond form for protection, and unable to speak telepathically, she verbally reassures the Professor that she believes him, and that she would make sure everything would be all right.
Over the next several days, she then took her team of X-Men around San Francisco, not only stopping Trask and his human-conversion biosentinels, but also clearing up the residual riots and rounding up the remaining mutants from the streets. Her motives come into greater doubt when she and Namor stand idly by when they witness the Dark Beast using his Omega Machine to torture and power drain the captives, while Cloak and Dagger can barely look on.
However, Emma's true motivations and interests behind her recent actions are revealed when, after another session draining Henry McCoy with the machine, Dark Beast and Weapon Omega discover that all the mutant captives had disappeared. They discover that Mindee Cuckoo had allowed herself to get arrested just so she could lead the rest of the X-Men there. Teleporting in and out via Magik's portals, X-Force had freed the prisoners. After raising the alarm, Emma leads Osborn's X-Men to stop X-Force, then surprises everyone by betraying her own team. Daken and Mimic are taken down in the process, and Emma takes Cloak, Dagger and Namor with her and X-Force to rejoin the rest of the mutants.
Emma then rejoins Cyclops with the rest of the mutant community and their sympathizers on a mobile island/vessel, reminiscent of Magneto's Asteroid M, which had been dubbed Utopia. It is thus confirmed that her agreement to side with Osborn was entirely part of Cyclops' master plan.
When Osborn retaliates and sends his Avengers to fight the X-Men, Emma is tasked to remove the Sentry from play, since it seems that Osborn had influenced the Void side of Bob's personality to gain dominance. She goes to Xavier, who aids her in accessing a special "white room" Emma and other telepaths set up in Bob's head for this kind of emergency. She pulls Bob into that room, giving his benign persona control of the Sentry.
However, the Void, angered at the intrusion, assaults her. Bob then leaves the planet to prevent doing further harm, but the Void, angered, channels itself free and pursues Bob into space. The pain causes Emma to reflexively shift to diamond form. Xavier notices that a tiny sliver of the Void remained trapped inside Emma as a result, and warned her not to shift back into her organic form, perhaps surmising that the Void wouldn't be able to overcome Bob in his Sentry form if he wasn't whole.
After Osborn retreated, leaving the mutants to build their utopia, Emma continued to support Cyclops, though she wad seemingly trapped in her diamond form until the Void essence could be safely removed. Therefore, Xavier telepathically linked Emma and Cyclops' minds. Cyclops found himself in a vast white room inside Emma's mind. Many representations of Emma were present, and Emma's main consciousness approached him. Just as they began to discuss how to extract the Void, all the other Emma personalities attacked Cyclops, while the main Emma is pulled into the empty whiteness.
The Emmas chanted about how 'feelings mean pain' and that they didn't want any more pain. Cyclops realized that none of them were actually any part of Emma, so he destroyed them. Meanwhile, Emma was falling down the vast whiteness of her mind, until she was attacked by a giant black mass. She flew away from it towards Cyclops' thoughts until she was able to reach him through a hole he had blasted through the whiteness. Once rescued Emma saw something over Cyclops' shoulder, and was abruptly ejected from her mind and into the real world. She was no longer in her diamond form. She rushed forward and grabbed at Cyclops' unconscious body, claiming that The Void was now inhabiting him. Emma enters his mind and together seal away The Void.
Selene recently resurrected Emma's Hellions who were sent to attack her. They caught her unawares, and taunted her. Confronted by her past failures, Emma crumpled and was unable to fight back. She was protected by Cyclops and Domino long enough for the Vanisher to appear and teleport Emma to safety.
At the end of the battle, Emma recognized the only way to end this was to kill Selene and anyone on her side, even Wither, a former student of Emma.
Other recently resurrected mutants were sent to attack the X-Men to prevent them from from interfering with Selene's plans to sacrifice the souls of the resurrected mutants on Genosha. However, the Hellions were sent to kill Emma as a punishment for thwarting Selene's plans during their time in the Hellfire Club together.
During Second Coming Emma mostly stays on Utopia and uses her telepathy to keep Scott and the field teams connected. She later leaves this post to fight with the other X-Men on the Golden Gate Bridge. She acts very nervous when Hope manifests the phoenix force, but she is told by Wolverine that there is nothing she can do now.
Later, after all the sentinels are defeated, Emma stands by and watches the students have a bonfire. She has put herself into her diamond form to take a break from feeling.
She acts cold and unconcerned towards Scott when he seeks her out for moral support due to being in this form. She then sees the phoenix force manifest around Hope and remembers Jean Grey's words to her when she saw her during the Sisterhood attack: "prepare". Emma begins to panic and runs past her students shouting for Scott. She tries to tell him what she saw but is cut off by the five light appearing on Cerebro, indicating that new mutants have emerged.
The Five Lights
When Hope leaves to investigate her origins Emma is present to see her off and give Scott moral support to ease his worrying. After Scott leaves Emma goes on to meet Tony Stark for dinner to discuss, as Tony puts it, "which way we want the world to spin". Later into the dinner Tony discusses with Emma that he wants mutants and human super heroes to be on the same side again and wants the X-Men to have no more secrets and to stop isolating themselves. They toast to unity.
Upon returning from her dinner Emma meets with Danger in the Brig. It is revealed that she is keeping Sebastian Shaw as a prisoner. Danger confronts her about keeping this secret from the other X-Men and an argument ensues. They are interrupted by Madison Jeffries who was asked to find her and send her to the sick bay.
Once in the sick bay Colossus asks her to use her telepathy to help him communicate with Kitty, who is still being held in a protective chamber while stuck in a phased state. She rudely refuses but an angry Kitty persuades her to help. Later, Emma meets Namor in the Atlantean's new home under Utopia for Sushi. Namor flirts with her and talks down about Scott. Emma becomes enraged by this and says that Scott is a great leader.
Curse of the Mutants
During the meeting in which the X-Men discuss what to do about the vampire attacks, Emma gives Scott the idea to revive Dracula. Scott seems to like the idea, and plans to go through with it, but other members disagree.
She states that Dracula is a bomb. They will light the fuse and watch what happens. After the meeting Emma confronts Scott stating that she knows he has some doubt about the plan.